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LEDBERG LED Light Strip, Multicolor

Suitable for use in small spaces, e.g. in cabinets or behind a wall-mounted TV, as it only emits low heat.

Uses LEDs, which consume up to 85% less energy and last 20 times longer than incandescent bulbs.

3 pieces, 10" each. You can connect all 3 pieces, or choose to use 1 or 2 pieces.

The light source has a lifetime of approx. 25,000 hours. This corresponds to about 20 years if the lamp is on for 3 hours per day.

The included transformer supports up to 3 pieces, mounted in a straight line.

The light strip has 3 settings. You can change automatically between 7 different colors, set to 1 color by pressing the button, or switch colors smoothly by pressing again.

If you set it to 1 color, the light strip will have the same color next time you switch it on.

LEDBERG LED Light Strip, Multicolor 1

My computer isn't turning on. Suggestions?

Are you sure there power at the outlet? Is there anything else on this outlet working? If yes then double check the power cord at both ends. On some power supplies have a off switch on power supply check to see it is on. If you got hit with a power spike then power supply fuse could have blown. Replace the power supply best solution. Real simple to replace a power supply. The cords on inside only plug in to matching sockets. Some motherboards have build in led light, if led is on then you have power to motherboard. Or the led lights for network will be on if you have power to motherboard. You have lights and no power up. You could have miss voltage from the power supply. To test output of power supply you can use special tester which plugs into sockets on the tester and you will see output Voltages or LED lights. I have the one with voltage readings. Now you have tested power supply and there nothing wrong with the supply. Next thing I would do is unplug everything except one stick of memory, video card, and power to motherboard. No drives or any cards are plug into motherboard. Undo all USB cords including keyboard and mouse. You have nothing attach to motherboard except video card, 1 stick of memory, cpu, and power supply. Press the power switch, does motherboard show the BIOS setup screen? If not then you have something wrong with motherboard. If yes then you have some wrong with part you have removed. Now replace one part a time, starting with memory, PCI cards, and drives. Leave the hard drive to last, the reason for this is you are starting and stopping the computer. This is hard on hard drives. Since we are just wanting to startup to BIOS then off. If you plug in something which stops the computer then you just found the problem. I have in the pass seen USB item or PCI card with a short to stop a computer from starting up.

LED lighting help (inside of a car )?

www.ledunderbody.com

LEDBERG LED Light Strip, Multicolor 2

Parallel Circuit with 17 LED Lights..?

ohms law

Growth and stress response in Arabidopsis thaliana, Nicotiana benthamiana, Glycine max, Solanum tuberosum and Brassica napus cultivated under polychromatic LEDs

Objective of this study was to examine the feasibility of using polychromatic LED tube lighting - in terms of providing sufficient light intensity and quality for plant growth and development in experimental growth chambers - and their potential to replace existing conventional fluorescent tubes. Important aspect of our effort was the overall economy of LED based solution and the requirement to limit the initial investment to minimum. While there are far superior LED arrays specifically designed for plant growth, they tend to be also rather more expensive. We have selected several plant species currently used in our laboratories and compared their growth under LED tubes with their growth under fluorescent lighting. In addition to basic plant growth, we have also performed several basic experiments aimed at assessing the plants' response to stress.

In contrast to other LED-based plant growth systems which usually contain a mixture of chips emitting in narrow bands, the LED tubes used in this study provided a full and continuous visible spectrum with pronounced blue and red irradiation. The LED tubes we used are equipped with a standard G13 light fitting, thus they can be used directly in the existing infrastructure designed for conventional fluorescent tubes and do not require any potentially expensive reconstruction and electrical refitting. If desired, the tubes can even be mixed with standard fluorescent tubes. Also, since these standard LED tubes are intended for the mass consumer market, they can be purchased relatively inexpensively and future reductions in their price is to be expected. Tubes used in this work were borrowed from their manufacturer Frontier Technologies (Prague, Czech Republic) for the duration of the experiments.

Our work was motivated by efforts to reduce the costs related to energy consumption of the plant growth facilities at our institute; in this context the capacity of LED technology to reduce both energy requirements and heat generation could not be ignored. The usefulness of light for plant growth and development is defined by its quality (spectral composition), quantity (photon flux) and duration of illumination (photoperiod). Light sources used in this work differed only in their spectral composition, while the photoperiod and quantity of light was kept either identical or closely similar (Figure 1B,C). The photon flux measured by the Li-Cor Quantum Photometer showed almost identical values for both light sources. With the fast progress in the development of the LED technology and especially considering its flexibility and low power consumption it is clear that this technology will be more and more used for indoor plant growth. Fluorescent lamps are currently the most common source of light for indoor cultivation. However, they emit light in several narrow bands ranging from 350 to 750 nm and these are not always aligned with the wavelengths absorbed by a plant's photosynthetic apparatus; they thus generate unnecessary heat.

By contrast, the LEDs used in this work provide a continuous spectrum of all wavelengths between 400-700 nm, with enhanced radiation at around 450 nm and 665 nm. Contrary to conventional fluorescent tubes which are used as universal light source, the LEDs can be fine tuned for specific purpose (eg optimized for particular plant species, induction of flowering, change of morphology). Since it has been shown many times that light of various wavelengths acts not only as the energy source for photosynthesis but also as an effective growth regulator ,21,, we wanted to see whether two light sources with principally different spectral qualities could both be used in growth chambers to grow healthy experimental plants and what would be the impact of different light spectra on various physiological experiments. In some settings it might be important to compare the older experimental data gained using fluorescent tubes with newer datasets obtained from plants grown under LED illumination. In one of the first studies of LED illumination being used for plant growth, Bula et al. (1991) used LEDs supplemented with blue fluorescent (BF) lamps and the effect on the lettuce plants studied was equivalent to that of cool-white fluorescent (CWF) lighting plus incandescent lamps . However, Hoenecke et al. (1992) showed that plants grown only under LEDs which emitted mostly red light (660 nm) have different growth of hypocotyls and cotyledons. These effects were prevented by the addition of at least 15 mol.m-2.s1 of blue light . This early work demonstrated that complex light sources are needed.

In previous work, Cope and Bugbee (2013) have also used continuous-spectrum LED-diodes and have shown that for some plant species the relative ratio of blue to red light is important while for some others the absolute amount of blue light is a better descriptor . It has also been shown many times that green light opposes the effects of the red and blue wavebands (for an excellent review see ). As already mentioned in the results, the two used light sources differed mostly in their red component: this contributed almost 61% of total photon flux from LED tubes, while only up to 39% of photons from fluorescent lights. The most important motivation for replacing conventional fluorescent tubes with LEDs is their lower power consumption, which also brings a substantial reduction in the heat generated and a reduction in water use. From our measurements it is clear that the LED-based solution provides an equivalent PPFD (photosynthetic photon flux density) while using only 38% of the energy consumed by fluorescent tubes. Their energy efficiency is mostly helped by the fact that all emitted photons are directed to a relatively narrow angle of 120 while the fluorescent tubes emit electrons in a full 360 circle. Additional power savings might be expected from the reduced need for air-conditioning; however, these savings are more difficult to estimate.

One interesting observation made during these experiments was that while the air-conditioning along with the passive airflow was adequate to keep the temperature quite near to the preset value in most of the growth room, there were spots of substantially higher temperatures on the growth shelves caused by the limited air flow between the plants and pots. When fluorescent lights were used the temperatures measured directly between the plants within the trays were 2.5 above the threshold, however the temperatures just few centimeters to the side reached 31.4C creating quite steep temperature gradient. Such gradient was not observed when the LED lights were used. This was also reflected in increased water consumption of plants under fluorescent lights. While the high temperature spots could be efficiently controlled with a fan providing an active airflow, the absence of such gradient is an important advantage of the LED based solution which reduces the need for additional active elements in the growth chambers.

We are fully aware that many if not all the differences in growth characteristics recorded throughout this work might be at least partially attributed to these differences in temperatures. The experimental design used in this study was designed to show differences in plant growth in the case when the fluorescent tubes would be replaced with the same number of LED light sources with otherwise unchanged cultivation settings. The lower air temperature resulting from the lower heat generation of LEDs is thus one of the principal findings of this study. Since we plan to use a larger number of LED tubes than the ones deployed in this study in the future, we also want to prepare an experimental design which will separate the effect of temperature from the spectral composition. The reduced generation of heat by LED tubes was also reflected in the reduced consumption of water or nutrient solution by about one third (Figure 1D). This brings important savings in the time dedicated to watering and checking of plants.

In our settings it has also reduced the water stress over weekends or longer holidays when plants under fluorescent light might have experienced overwatering combined with consequent drought, while plants under LEDs could be conveniently watered in longer (3-day) intervals. Comparisons of the overall costs of LED tubes with the currently-deployed fluorescent tubes depends mostly on two factors - the initial investment and the cost of electricity . Electric rates vary widely between countries and districts, thus the final decision as to whether the investment into converting to LED is profitable (and when) depends on a user's geographical location. In our model, we have used current commercial rates in the Czech Republic of 2.5 CZK/kWh (approximately 0.11 USD), while the current price per tube is 1000 CZK (approximately 45.8 USD). Under this scenario the savings from reduced electricity consumption will balance the higher initial price of LED tubes after 25 months (16-hr daylight regime). We also expect that the prices of LED-based solutions will continue to decrease at a relatively fast rate, while electricity rates will continue to increase slowly, thus making the transition to LEDs even more attractive in the future. Since our LED-based solution does not involve any rewiring of fixtures, we have assumed that the installation costs of both LED and fluorescent lamps to be the same; however, the fluorescent tubes would need to be replaced approximately 5 times during the lifetime of the LEDs, which would thus incur additional maintenance costs. Other costs related to periodic checking of the light output would be approximately the same irrespective of the type of lamp.

Of all the plant species tested, the largest difference in plant morphology was observed in soybean. In previous work Cope and Bugbee (2013) have shown the effect of blue light on the stem length of developing soybean plants. In their experiments the increasing absolute blue light of up to 50 mol.m-2.s1 resulted in decreased stem length. In our experiments both groups received a similar absolute amount of blue radiation (28-31 mol.m-2.s1 or 32-35 mol.m2 s1 for fluorescent and LED grown plants, respectively) and also similar were its relative proportions to other wavelengths (16.1% vs. 19.1%). Clearly the very fast growth rate of shoots in plants under fluorescent lights cannot be explained by the differences in blue light irradiation alone. It is true, however, that the amount of blue light in both groups was near the saturation point observed by Cope and Bugbee and thus other components might have played a role.

Another contributing factor might be that we have used cultivar Jack as opposed to the dwarf variety Hoyt. For the growth of experimental plants it is important that LED-grown plants are substantially more compact and thus better fit into the limited space of the growth chamber. On the other hand, both their flowering and seed filling was delayed, which is a drawback that needs to be taken into account when planning experiments. Since the LED tubes emit very little energy in the far-red region, it would be interesting to see if this delay could be reverted by some additional source of far-red illumination. It is also interesting to note that out of all the measured photosynthetic pigments, the most striking difference between fluorescent- and LED-grown soybeans was in the reduced levels of zeaxanthin under LED illumination; zeaxanthin has a role in the dissipation of excess excitation energy by participating in non-photochemical quenching and is essential in protecting the chloroplast from photo-oxidative damage . Thus the plants grown under fluorescent lights have exhibited very fast rates of elongation of shoots, which is a common reaction to insufficient light, and at the same time increased levels of pigments protecting them from photodamage.

Another striking difference observed during described set of experiments was the relative speed of root formation by potato explants in vitro. LED grown plants started to root practically immediately after placement into solid media, while under fluorescent light the first shoots started to appear after one week. It is very likely that the plants might have been stressed by high temperatures inside of the magenta box under fluorescent lights. The higher temperature in magenta also probably affected the water content in growing plants, thus the plants growing under LED contained more water and less dry matter than the plants grown under fluorescent light (data not shown). Other plant species tested have shown very similar growth characteristics and biomass accumulation under both light sources, albeit sometimes slightly slower growth under LED lights, which again can be fully explained by the slightly decreased temperature. It is known that plant immunity is modulated by both the quantity and quality of light and by temperature ,. In this set of experiments we have observed the plant response to several stressors, namely in the canonical pathosystems Arabidopsis thaliana x Pseudomonas syringae, N.benthamiana x Tobacco mosaic virus, and Brassica napus x Leptosphaeria maculans.

In the Arabidopsis system we did not observe any statistically significant differences in plant resistance to Pseudomonas (Additional file: 1 Figure S2A). It was shown previously that light has an effect on the salicylic acid (SA) signaling pathway . We measured the transcription level of PR1 (PATHOGENESIS RELATED 1) gene (marker gene of SA signaling) in both Arabidopsis and Brassica napus. We have shown that basal levels of PR1 transcription were elevated in Arabidopsis plants under LED light (Figure 2D). This is in agreement with the observation of Wang et al. (2010), who showed that red light induces PR-1 transcription in cucumber . However, these elevated basal levels did not have any measurable effect on Arabidopsis resistance to Pseudomonas; similarly, for Brassica the increase was very little. Agroinfiltrated N. benthamiana leaves of both groups also appeared almost identical under UV light. Interestingly, when the fluorescence of extracts was measured using a fluorometer, the LED grown plants showed a lower variation in accumulated GFP between older and younger leaves (Figure 3B), which might be an important advantage in the study of plant virus interactions. Based on these observations we believe that the LED light system is suitable for the study of plant-microbe interactions.

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