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Design and Analysis of Solar LED Lighting System

In recent years, with the increasing global energy crisis, conventional energy has been unable to meet the needs of world economic development. Solar energy, as an important renewable green energy, is favored by countries all over the world. The solar semiconductor lighting system integrates the advantages of semiconductor and solar resources, and effectively improves the lighting efficiency and green energy saving. In practical application, the analysis and research of solar semiconductor lighting system should be increased to give full play to the advantages of solar semiconductor lighting system.Overview of characteristics of solar semiconductor devices

Design and Analysis of Solar LED Lighting System 1

Solar semiconductors are mainly composed of optical systems, electrodes, PN junction chips, etc. the luminous body area of the chip is about 0.025 mm2. The whole luminous process goes through three stages: injecting carriers under forward bias; Light energy transmission; Compound radiation. The semiconductor wafer is encapsulated in epoxy resin. When the electrons flow through the wafer, the positively charged electrons and negatively charged electrons recombine in the hole area, and the holes and electrons disappear to produce photons. The photon energy is directly proportional to the band gap between the holes and electrons, and the light color corresponds to the photon energy. According to the analysis of visible light spectrum, the light energy of red light and orange light is the least, Violet light and blue light have the most light energy.

With the rapid development of packaging technology and material technology, the light efficiency of green LED is about 50lm / W, and that of orange and red LED is 100lm / W. due to the characteristics of full-color, ultra-high brightness and high efficiency, LED has a wider range of applications, especially in outdoor lighting system. Led realizes all visible light in terms of chromaticity, especially the emergence of ultra-high brightness white LED, which promotes the rapid development of lighting sources.In general, light intensity 1CD is the dividing point between high brightness LED and ordinary led. Galnas, ailngap and A1GaAs materials are mainly used to process high brightness LED. A1GaAs materials are used for high brightness red LED, ailngap is used for high brightness yellow green, yellow, orange and red LED, and galnas is used for high brightness purple, blue and dark green LED.

LED semiconductor has high luminous efficiency. The luminous efficiency of tungsten halogen lamp and incandescent lamp is 12 20 lumens / watt, high-pressure sodium is 90 130 lumens / watt, and fluorescent lamp is 50 60 lumens / watt. Moreover, it has narrow spectrum and good monochromaticity, and can emit colored visible light without filtering. At the same time, LED is an all solid light-emitting body, which is impact resistant, shock resistant, not easy to break and pollution-free. It can be developed into small and thin lighting products to facilitate maintenance, overhaul and installation. Moreover, the start-up time of LED light source is short, and the characteristics of gas discharge light source largely determine the start-up time. This kind of semiconductor light source with epoxy packaging does not contain easily damaged components such as filament and glass, which can withstand impact and vibration.

Design of solar semiconductor lighting system(1) System compositionThe solar semiconductor lighting system is composed of semiconductor lighting load, controller, battery and solar cell. The standby power supply is set in the basic structural framework. Through the standby power supply, the semiconductor lighting load can be continuously powered by the standby power supply even if it rains continuously for a long time, Ensure that the solar semiconductor lighting system can operate safely and stably when the battery cannot supply power in time.

Design and Analysis of Solar LED Lighting System 2

When the solar semiconductor lighting system operates, the solar radiation energy is converted into electric energy through the solar cell. The solar radiation intensity and temperature have a direct impact on the output power of the solar cell. When the radiation intensity is weak and the temperature is low, the battery output power cannot always maintain stability, Therefore, it is necessary to store electric energy in time through the battery during the period of high solar radiation intensity, so as to reliably and stably supply power to the semiconductor lighting system during the operation of the lighting system.The controller is the core of the solar semiconductor lighting system. The controller scientifically manages the battery charging and discharging process, effectively controls the working state of the lighting system, and makes the solar semiconductor lighting system run smoothly under different working states.(2) Conversion process

Semiconductor material is an important structural material of solar cell, and its most important characteristic is photovoltaic effect. The equivalent circuit diagram of p-n junction solar semiconductor is shown in the figure. After receiving solar radiation, the semiconductor produces photovoltaic effect, which goes through the following three conversion stages.

1) Generate electron pairs. In the absolute zero state, a dielectric electron band is formed inside the semiconductor, and the conduction band does not contain electrons. Under normal conditions, the semiconductor can be regarded as an insulator and does not show conductivity. When solar energy radiates to the semiconductor, the band gap is much smaller than the photon energy, and the semiconductor will quickly absorb this light. If the semiconductor lattice absorbs more solar radiation, it can break away from the constraints of electrons on the semiconductor lattice, generate a large number of free electrons and form holes. Therefore, in order to convert the semiconductor lattice bound electrons into a large number of free electrons, the semiconductor band gap width should be less than the photon energy. For example, the silicon band gap width is 1.15ev. Under the condition that the semiconductor band gap width is consistent with the incident light energy, the light absorption efficiency is high and a large number of hole electron pairs can be generated. However, when photons with greater energy are injected into the semiconductor, Because some photons are absorbed by semiconductor lattice, some energy will be lost, resulting in the decline of luminous efficiency;

2) Hole electron pair separation. When there is no electric field around the solar semiconductor lighting system, a large number of optically excited hole electron pairs are evenly distributed in the semiconductor. Since there is no current flowing through the external circuit, a potential barrier needs to be generated in the solar semiconductor in some way to ensure that the excited hole electron pairs are separated and continuously supply power to the external circuit of the lighting system. Usually, p-n junction is mainly used to realize this potential barrier. The role of p-n junction in hole electron separation is limited. If no external circuit is set, the separated electrons gather in P and N layers. The p-n junction is positive and gradually deviates towards the direction of potential barrier reduction. After separation stops, it returns to normal state. The voltage between p-n junction is called open circuit voltage, and the amount of irradiated light is directly proportional to the short-circuit current;

3) Carrier movement. Hole electron pairs do not necessarily separate completely under the condition of light energy radiation. The ratio of the number of separation to the number of generation is called the collection efficiency, and move under the action of charge concentration gradient and electric field offset effect. In general, carriers tend to automatically restore the equilibrium state. If the excess carrier life is shorter than the electron movement time of p-n junction, the position of p-n junction and the excess carrier life have a decisive impact on the collection efficiency. Holes move to p layer, electrons move to N layer, positive and negative charges are concentrated in the semiconductor beam respectively, and wires are used to connect these two ends to generate current.

ConclusionIn recent years, the solar semiconductor lighting system has developed rapidly and is widely used in various lighting fields. Combined with the application characteristics of solar semiconductor devices, the semiconductor lighting system will be further optimized and improved in the future development process to continuously improve its luminous efficiency.

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